The recycling process of used lithium-ion batteries mainly includes pretreatment, secondary treatment and further treatment. Since there is still some electricity left in the used battery, the pretreatment process includes deep discharge process, crushing, and physical separation; the purpose of the secondary treatment is to realize the complete separation of positive and negative active materials from the substrate, and heat treatment and organic solvent dissolution are commonly used. , lye dissolution method and electrolysis method to realize the complete separation of the two; advanced treatment mainly includes two processes of leaching and separation and purification to extract valuable metal materials. According to the classification of extraction process, battery recycling methods can be mainly divided into three categories: dry recycling, wet recycling and biological recycling.
Methord of Reclyling the Used Lithium Battery
(1) Physical Sorting Method
The physical separation method refers to dismantling and separating the battery, crushing, sieving, magnetic separation, fine crushing and classification of battery components such as electrode active materials, current collectors and battery casings, so as to obtain valuable high-content substances . A method proposed by Shin et al. using sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide to recover Li and Co from lithium-ion battery waste liquid includes two processes: physical separation of metal-containing particles and chemical leaching. Among them, the physical separation process includes crushing, screening, magnetic separation, fine crushing and classification. In the experiment, a group of crushers with rotating and fixed blades were used for crushing, and sieves with different apertures were used to classify the crushed materials, and magnetic separation was used for further processing to prepare for the subsequent chemical leaching process.
(2) High temperature pyrolysis method
The high-temperature pyrolysis method refers to the decomposition of lithium-ion battery materials that have undergone preliminary separation treatment such as physical crushing, and is fired at high temperature to remove the organic binder, thereby separating the constituent materials of the lithium-ion battery. At the same time, the metals and their compounds in lithium-ion batteries can be oxidized, reduced and decomposed, volatilized in the form of steam, and then collected by condensation and other methods.
2. Wet Recycling
The wet recycling process is to crush and dissolve the waste batteries, and then use appropriate chemical reagents to selectively separate the metal elements in the leaching solution to produce high-grade cobalt metal or lithium carbonate, etc., for direct recycling. Wet recycling is more suitable for the recovery of waste lithium-ion batteries with a relatively single chemical composition, and its equipment investment cost is low, which is suitable for the recovery of small and medium-sized waste lithium-ion batteries. Therefore, this method is widely used at present.
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